The GreenHouse Gas Protocol, the most commonly used international standard to quantify greenhouse gas emissions, classifies the emissions of a company, city or country into three “scopes”. Now what do they mean by this? 

Scope 1: direct emissions

Scope 1 includes all emissions that are the direct consequence of activities in the city or municipality.


  • emissions by factories on their own land (industry);

  • emissions by cars, lorries, public transport, etc. on own territory (transport);

  • emissions caused by gas consumption by city services, households, companies and industries (e.g. gas boilers, cogeneration plants and ovens) on own territory (households, tertiary and industry)

Scope 2: indirect emissions linked to energy consumption

Scope 2 consists of the indirect emissions for the energy (electricity or other) that is purchased by, for example, households or companies in the city or municipality. The emissions then occur when such energy is generated.


  • emissions caused by electricity consumption by city services, households, companies and industries on own territory, (households, tertiary and industry).

Scope 3: other indirect emissions

Scope 3 consists of all other emissions pursuant to the activities of companies, inhabitants, municipal services, etc. that take place outside city territory but at the service of the city’s inhabitants, companies, industries, etc. Such emissions are more difficult to quantify than the emissions of Scopes 1 & 2, which is why they are not always included in the reports.


  • emissions by outsourced transport or production or waste processing (waste);

  • emission pursuant to producing or transporting food consumed by inhabitants, companies, etc. (food);

  • emissions by the air traffic caused by inhabitants and employees (transport);

  • emissions pursuant to production or consumption of goods by inhabitants, companies, etc. (other);

In FutureproofedCities?

You can divide your measures into in scopes 1&2 or scope 3 in FutureproofedCities. Scope 3 measures are measures related to food, waste and consumption, for example.

Important: Reporting for the Covenant of Mayors contains only scopes 1&2! The Dashboard therefore only shows you the emissions and reduction within these scopes.

Please note: You can also filter the graphs according to scope under “Analysis”.

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